Dr. Eric Cline talks Noah’s Ark

In light of the recent release of the movie about Noah starring Russell Crow, Friends of ASOR interviewed Dr. Eric Cline of The George Washington University to talk about Biblical Archaeology and claims to the discovery of Noah’s Ark. Listen to the podcast on the Friends of ASOR Website.

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The Gospel of Jesus’s Wife

About a year and a half ago, Harvard University’s Hollis Professor of Divinity Karen L. King announced the discovery of a papyrus fragment that sent shock-waves through the academic and religious communities.  According to Dr. King, the small papyrus, about 4cm by 8cm, contained a few lines of Egyptian Coptic text.  Early translations indicated that a portion of the text read “… Jesus said to them, ‘My wife…’  The announcement was met with controversy almost immediately:  several prominent scholars were skeptical of its authenticity; a prominent Vatican newspaper decried it as a fake; and, after some debate, Dr. King’s article on the piece, titled “‘Jesus said to them,’ My wife…’:  A New Coptic Papyrus Fragment,” was even withheld from publication pending further review of the papyrus by other academics.

gospel of jesus's wife

The Fragment Containing the ‘Gospel of Jesus’s Wife’ (Source:  wikipedia.org)

Recently, that article appeared in print alongside several other articles on the ‘gospel’ fragment in the prestigious journal Harvard Theological Review.  Tests on the papyrus, paleography, and the ink have indicated that it is not a modern forgery, but an ancient document dating to the 8th century CE. The great interest in this document has prompted the journal’s editors and officials at Harvard University to offer this edition of the journal online for free download by the public.  Access to the articles can be found here at Cambridge Journals Online.

But, what exactly does a source like this mean?  Did Jesus, as an historical person, really have a wife?   Simply put, the answer (like those to many questions about the ancient world) we may never know.  This fragment should not be taken as proof or even evidence that Jesus had a wife.  The document is too far removed chronologically to speak to that question with any authority.  Likewise, other accounts such as the canonical Gospels make no mention of a spouse.  What this document does indicate, however, is that there was a belief among some Christians (at least in the 8th century) that Jesus may have had a wife.  Furthermore, it may have curious implications for the role of women in Christianity;  other lines of the text, according to King’s translation, read “…she is able to be my disciple…” Can this source be used to evaluate the status of women in the Late Antique Church?  Or, does this discovery ask more questions than it answers?

What do you think?  We here at A&P encourage our readers to review these articles and tell us what you think about “The Gospel of Jesus’s Wife” in the comments below!  Happy reading!

Featured image credit: nbcnews.com

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Rockets, Grenades, and Cats

About a month ago Dr. Arthur Mitchell Fraas, at the University of Pennsylvania, found what may be the greatest discovery of the year so far: a sixteenth century manuscript that depicted a cat with a bag of flame strapped to its back for use in warfare.

Franz Helm, Feuer Buech (1584), 137r.

The original consensus was that this was a rocket cat. Dr. Fraas felt that this conclusion, while extremely tempting, was probably not correct. Instead, in his studies, Dr. Fraas found that the rocket cat was instead a grenade cat or more accurately a bomb cat. The original author, a sixteenth-century artillery master from Cologne named Franz Helm, intended for the cat (among other animals) to be an inconspicuous way to deliver bombs into unsuspecting cities. This method of delivery was very obviously flawed, as the animal used would most likely set your own camp on fire and not the enemy’s town. It does, however, represent the extremely imaginative ideas that people had for gunpowder, which, beginning notably with the use of cannons in the Battle of Crecy in 1346, was really starting to change warfare. The extensive use of gunpowder, such as that seen in this manuscript, could definitely be argued for as one of the main delineations between the Medieval and Renaissance periods in European history. Since there is no other evidence of this actually being done, though, hopefully cats weren’t really used in warfare.

The works of Franz Helm have all been digitized by the University of Pennsylvania at http://dla.library.upenn.edu/dla/medren/index.html.

The article from which this information was drawn can be found all over the internet, but I used the one at The Guardian, which can be found here: http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/mar/06/fur-flies-rocket-cats-warfare-manual.

Finally, as using cats for weapons is quite cruel, an image of a real rocket cat to end on a positive note.

 

Categories: Digital Humanities, History Blog | 1 Comment

From Pirates to Pax Romana: The Economic Transformation of Crete

Check out the video of A&P Editor Jayd Lewis presenting her paper, “From Pirates to Pax Romana: The Economic Transformation of Crete,” at the 2014 NCSU History Graduate Student Association Conference on March 22.

 

From Pirates to Pax Romana: The Economic Transformation of Crete (J. Jayd H. Lewis) from Jayd Lewis1 on Vimeo.

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Update: Volunteer or attend a field school this summer!

 

Do you want to be an archaeologist? You can be this summer! There are tons of opportunities to volunteer or even get class credit for participating in a field school on an archaeological project. Check out these neat opportunities and apply today!

 

Azoria Project 2014 (Field School in Classical Archaeology)

If you’re looking to go to Greece this summer and want to experience all that the famous Cretan hospitality has to offer, I recommend applying for the Azoria Project 2014. Volunteers and Field School students not only learn how to excavate, but there are many learning opportunities in other aspects of archaeological investigation through working at the Institute for Aegean Prehistory Study Center for East Crete. Students and staff live in the village of Kavousi, where the residents are friendly and love to open their homes and show people around. There are also many opportunities for traveling the island and other sites in Greece during the afternoons and weekends. A big hit with the students is Tholos beach–where many students spend their afternoon relaxing and cooling off after a hard day’s work up in the mountains. If this sounds like the adventure for you, check it out more on the project’s website (Duke in Crete) and information page (Azoria Project 2014).

Field School participants sifting soil for bones, pottery, and plant remains (duke.globaled.edu)
Field School participants sifting soil for bones, pottery, and plant remains (duke.globaled.edu)

 

Petra, Jordan Archaeological Field School (Summer 2014)IMG_0561

Were you a fan of Indiana Jones growing up? Then you may recognize to the right the Monastery of Petra featured in The Last Crusade. Join NCSU professor S. Thomas Parker and ECU professor Megan Perry in investigating the every-day lives of the people who lived at this magnificent site during the first to fourth centuries CE. Petra is nearly 2,000 years old, and was the capital of the Nabatean kingdom before the area was conquered by Rome and incorporated into the Roman empire. This site is famous for its magnificent rock-cut building facades, temples, and Byzantine churches (in the Indiana Jones film, it was also the final resting place of the Holy Grail–which sadly researchers have not actually found at the site). Come experience the breath-taking beauty of this ancient city and experience the rich cultural heritage of the friendly people of Jordan. Check out the program website (studyabroad.ncsu.edu) and apply before March 14!

 

 

Najerilla Valley Research Project Screen Shot 2014-04-01 at 6.26.50 PM

Join A&P Editor Jayd Lewis in Spain this summer! The Najerilla Valley Research Project is looking for fieldwork volunteers for Summer 2014. Our field project is located in La Rioja, Spain, not far from the charming medieval town of Nájera, on the ancient pilgrimage road to Santiago de
Compostela. This is a new project just beginning our first fieldwork season. Summer 2014 we will begin an archaeological survey looking for links between Roman and medieval settlement in the valley.

Participants will assist in the field survey as well as in pottery processing and drawing. No prior fieldwork experience is necessary.

Screen Shot 2014-04-01 at 6.26.37 PMWeekends will include excursions to cultural sites in the region including:

- The medieval monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla

-The Celtiberian city of Numantia, captured by the Romans in 133 B.C.

-Logroño, the capital of La Rioja

Check out the project flyer for more info!

 

 

Balkan Heritage Field School 

The Balkan Heritage Field School (BHFS, est. 2003) offers every year between 8 and 15 field school projects/courses in the field of Archeology and History of South-Eastern Europe, Documentation, Conservation and Restoration of Historic Artifacts and Monuments, taught in English, in two Balkan countries: Bulgaria and Macedonia. Various excursions around the Balkans, including the most attractive historical sites and cities of Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece, Serbia and Turkey supplement the BHFS program.

The Balkan Heritage Field School Projects are affiliated with ongoing research and/or conservation projects (such as excavations, expeditions, workshops), contributing to the study and preservation of the Balkan cultural heritage. They involve as trainers and instructors professionalarchaeologists and conservators, historians as well as other heritage specialists from Bulgaria, Macedonia, USA, Canada, France and Japan. Each BHFS project combines 3 basic educational modules: theoretical (lectures, presentations and field trainings), practical (participation in excavations, lab work, conservation workshops, field trips) and excursions to attractive archaeological and cultural sites & behind-the-scene visits. BHFS projects are listed among academic courses of New Bulgarian University, Bulgaria and all participants can obtain academic credits upon request.

 

Bethsaida Excavations Project

A&P contributor CJ Rice suggests this project in Israel, located located near the Sea of Galilee. The site has architectural remains from the Iron Age and Roman periods. For more information, visit: http://world.unomaha.edu/bethsaida/.

 

 

 

Other opportunities

There are many other opportunities to participate in archaeological projects throughout the world! Students as well as interested amateurs and newcomers alike are welcome to experience archaeological investigation and contribute to the field! Check out the list of field schools as well as funding opportunities on both the Archaeological Institute of America’s Field Work Bulletin page and the American Schools for Oriental Research websiteIf you’re interested in Biblical archaeology, the Biblical Archaeology Society also maintains a list of digs and field schools on their website. You can visit the list here: http://digs.bib-arch.org/.

 

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Word of the Day: boustrophedon [Greek: βουστροφηδόν]

One of the most challenging aspects of reading ancient texts is determining in which direction the text runs. As you may know, Egyptian Hieroglyphics could be written from right to left, from left to right, or from top to bottom (the most usual, however, being from right to left).

The same is true in the earliest forms of alphabetic writing. The alphabet that we English-speakers use today is originally derived from the early Phoenician script. While scholars disagree about exactly where and when the Phoenician alphabet took form, scholars generally believe that the Greeks adopted the script and adapted it to their own language by at least the eighth century BCE.

Nestor’s Cup form Pithekoussia

 

So far, the earliest attestations of Greek alphabetic writing are painted or inscribed on pots and other objects, such as the so-called “Nestor’s cup” from Pithekoussai, a Greek colony in Italy. Along the bottom of the cup is inscribed a short poem running from right to left in three lines:

ΝΕΣΤΟΡΟΣ:…:ΕΥΠΟΤΟΝ:ΠΟΤΕΡΙΟΝ
ΗΟΣΔΑΤΟΔΕΠΙΕΣΙ:ΠΟΤΕΡΙ..:AΥΤΙΚΑΚΕΝΟΝ
ΗΙΜΕΡΟΣΗΑΙΡΕΣΕΙ:ΚΑΛΛΙΣΤΕΦΑΝΟ:ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΕΣ

Inscription on bottom of Nestor’s Cup from Pithekoussai

Usually translated as:

“I am Nestor’s cup, good to drink from.
Whoever drinks up this cup, straightaway
the desire of beautiful-crowned Aphrodite will seize him.”

Early Greek alphabetic writing, like Egyptian hieroglyphs could run in all directions. The word of the day, boustrophedon, means writing in a zig-zag direction, literally “as the ox turns” in Greek [βουστροφηδόν; from βοῦς, bous, “ox” and στροφή, strophē, “turn”], connoting the way an ox ploughs a field. If the first line runs from right to left, as in the Law Code of Gortyn (fifth century BCE inscription from the Greek island of Crete), then the next line will run from left to right and the line after that would be right-to-left again (and so forth).

The circular wall containing the Law Code of Gortyn (fifth century BCE) Source

First lines of Law of Gortyn

First lines of Law of Gortyn

This is how boustrophedon writing would look in English:

 

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Wingardium Leviosa! Harry Potter and Antiquity

Alright guys—no pottery knowledge today or virtual tours through ancient cities. Since I was told in my AP English class (years ago) that Harry Potter would never hold any literary merit I have been determined to show otherwise! While I was studying for my Early Roman History course last semester, I unexpectedly began to see many connections between the main characters of Rowling’s books with historical and mythological figures of antiquity. Initially I drew these similarities: Dumbledore= Octavian Augustus; Tiberius Gracchus= Sirius Black; Hermione (if she were a man)= Tiberius; Ron Weasley= Aurelian; Harry Potter= Diocletian. There you go Roman scholars—I just narrated the Principate and Republic through the genius of JK Rowling’s Harry Pottery series.

Augustus

Albus Dumbledore: Dumbledore is the most stoic character of Rowling’s novels. He is a teacher, leader, and remarkably witty and powerful wizard. He is responsible for guiding Harry on his quest to rid the world of He Who Must Not be Named. His wisdom, power, and influence is so great that he can be characterized as the back-bone of the functional wizarding world. There is no question then that Dumbledore can be paired with Octavian Augustus, who was known for “Restoring the Republic,” and pulled the Roman Empire out of a disastrous civil war. Imperator Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (or simply Octavian or Augustus) was the adoptive son of the famous Julius Gaius Caesar. After curtailing the shenanigans of Antony and Cleopatra, Augustus came to the throne in 30 BC—a date which also coincides with the establishment of the Roman Empire. Augustus revamped bureaucracy not only in Rome but also in the Roman provinces. He was awarded with many elaborate administrative and religious titles, he stabilized the economy, and he set a precedent for his successors–like Diocletian (or, to revisit the worst part of all those standardized tests, a nice analogy is appropo here: Augustus is to Dumbledore as Harry Potter is to Diocletian).

Tiberius

Sirius Black:  A wizard whose Animagus was the rugged black dog that was originally thought to be an evil omen haunting Harry, turned out to be Harry’s endearing Godfather, Sirius Black. He was sarcastic, witty, and rebellious, and he also protected the rights of all wizards to live in a harmonious world (despite his elite, ‘pure-blood’ upbringing). Similarly, Tiberius Gracchus was a politician during the 2nd century BC, and despite his wealth, he used his power and prestige to fight for land reforms—essentially redistributing the wealth of the few to aid the poor of Rome. Much of Rome’s male citizens dwelled as beggars in the large city because their homes were destroyed from incessant warfare against the Carthaginians  in the third through second centuries BC. When he returned to Rome after campaigning, Tiberius saw that Rome’s vast farmlands were empty and were being snatched up by wealthy senators for their own profit––regardless of the fact that the land technically belonged to the Roman government. Tiberius thought, would it not be wise to distribute these lands to the male citizens, wasting away in Rome, in order to provide them with work? The senatorial majority thought quite the opposite—the senate believed they were the government of Rome and therefore their authority was being checked. Ultimately, the senators feared that the public land they had added to their own (illegally) would be confiscated.. Regardless of the Senate’s objections, Tiberius’ land reforms were passed and commissioned by gifts from a wealthy, deceased ally. The Senate, angered by this “popular power” declared martial law and Tiberius was assassinated. In much the same way, Sirius was also assassinated while fighting for the freedom of wizards against the Death Eaters  at the end of the Rowling’s fifth novel. Both Sirius and Tiberius Gracchus are characters in the same story—they are heroes in a struggle to protect the liberties and rights of people, scorning and fighting against the wealthy elite (and arguably evil forces) that wished to cause harm to those who needed help.

Hermione Granger: Passionate, bossy, witty, resilient, caring, dashingly brilliant and somewhat stubborn—Hermione Granger is a strong female character who is not afraid to do as she pleases and speak her mind. She is straight-laced, follows the rules, and plays fair at whatever costs. Tiberius Claudius Nero (the adopted son of Augustus) succeeded Augustus as Roman Emperor and maintained the status quo after Augustus’ death. If Hermione were to rule, her political agenda would not exceed that of Augustus, who advised Tiberius to leave the empire as it was upon his death—there was no room for expansion. However there was a need to maintain the facade that everything was “back to normal.”

Aurelian

Ron Weasley: The silly side-kick, Harry’s best friend and ally, Ron Weasley helps to save the day in every sticky situation that he, Harry, and Hermione get themselves into. Regardless of his great fear of spiders, Ron nevertheless always proves himself to be an outstanding wizard. He sacrifices himself at then end of Rowling’s first novel in order that Harry goes on to battle Voldemort. We see Ron again helping Harry at his first task during the Triwizard Tournament, and most importantly we see Ron come back to join the crew after a jealous rage in the last of Rowling’s novels. Only after his return can the trio successful locate and destroy Voldemort’s horcruxes. If Ron were to be compared to a Roman historical figure, it would have to be Aurelian. Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus began from humble beginnings and rose in rank through the military. He became emperor in AD 270 and was responsible for capturing Queen Zenobia, who by AD 274 had conquered most of the Eastern Roman Empire. He was  hailed as “Dominus et Deus” (Lord and God).  Aurelian is crucial to the survival of the Roman Empire. Without him, Queen Zenobia would have continued her campaigns into the western provinces and countless other military generals would have fought for administrative power—only perpetuating the Empire’s debilitating civil strife. Aurelian restored the Empire and is responsible for ending the Crisis of the Mid-Third Century.  Yet if not for Ron, (or Hermione) Harry would not have been able to accomplish his tasks in order to fight off the Death Eaters or to solve the puzzles that led Harry towards defeating Voldemort. If not for Aurelian, there would be only remnants of a lost empire after the third century.

Harry Potter: Last but certainly not least, the main character around which Rowling’s novels center is Harry Potter. A dynamic, intelligent, brave, courageous and maturing leader among his wizarding friends, Harry Potter was born to fulfill a destiny. That destiny was to defeat one of the most powerful, ruthless, and malignant wizards: Lord Voldemort. Although Harry Potter had many friends and advisors that helped him along in the process, in the end it could only be Harry that saved the wizarding world from chaos, destruction, and a reign of terror. Harry was innovative, bold, and reacted to obstacles on impulse–it is that same impulse that allowed him to escape near-death experiences in every one of Rowling’s novels. So—who is so valiant a figure, so crucial to the survival of the Roman world, such an impetus for the transformation of administrative, economic, and social situations of the Late Roman Empire? I think Caesar Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus—otherwise called Diocletian—is the

Diocletian

best historical match for Harry Potter. Diocletian came from a humble background and rose through the ranks of the army. He was named Emperor by those whom he commanded  in AD 284. In order to resolve the administrative issues that had plagued Rome since the Mid-Third Century Crisis, Diocletian created a new political unit: the tetrarchy (or rule of four). He, along with a co-Emperor (called augusti) would call the shots, while two junior caesars were appointed to help administer. He split the Empire in two: the East and the West. While he ruled from the East,  in AD 301 he then issued the Edict on Maximum Prices in order to help curb Rome’s out-of-control inflation. His militaristic, political, social, and economic reforms are hallmarks of the Later Roman Empire. His reforms are responsible for the many shifts and changes that the Empire experienced, and he is one of the most popular figures of research by leading Roman historians today. In the last novel of Rowling’s series, the reader believed Harry to be dead, however, in a dramatic twist, we learn that Harry is still barely alive and while Voldemort is distracted with celebrating his triumph Harry is able to finally defeat him––leaving Harry as one of the most famous and well-known figures of his world.

I admit that some of this can be a bit of a stretch, but I like to think I proved my high-school English teacher wrong. So many of the motifs, themes, and characteristics of Rowling’s novels correspond closely to Classical mythology and history. Many people may be unaware of this fact, but Rowling herself was actually a duel major in French and Classics during her university studies–so it is no surprise to see so many similarities between her stories and her studied subjects. This is not to say that Rowling deliberately modeled any of her characters after Roman historical figures. Nevertheless, those who are aware of these connections are able to recreate history as a means of entertainment rather than memorizing the boring facts.

So no pot knowledge of the day, and no tours of ancient cities, but rather a playful and artistic twist on Roman History.

:)

 

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Pullus et Panis: Cooking in Ancient Rome

Last year, chef and author Sally Grainger did a series on cooking with Roman cookware for the British Museum. In the posting that I found the most interesting, From Parthian Chicken to flat breads: experimenting with a Roman oven, Grainger used a clibanus oven (also called a testum, and pictured below) to cook things like bread and Parthian chicken (chicken in fish sauce and wine with caraway, lovage, asafoetida and pepper). The clibanus is heated by heaping coals  both under it and into the rim, which is curved for precisely this reason. The heat can be controlled by limiting where the coals are placed and how many coals are used. Grainger found the clibanus to be more suited to wet dishes, as it cracked when heated dry.

Reconstruction and experimentation with artifacts such as this oven is a very important aspect of archaeology, as it can help us to see how items were used in the past, giving them new life beyond just sherds in the sand. A word of caution, however: “The naming of things and in fact the concept of defining the purpose of an artefact from the past is very problematic as we almost always use modern concepts to define ancient things and this can interfere with our interpretation.”

This article is wonderful in its descriptiveness and in showing that cooking good food was to the ancients every bit as important as it is us. The full article, and its related postings can be found at:

http://blog.britishmuseum.org/2013/07/30/from-parthian-chicken-to-flat-breads-experimenting-with-a-roman-oven/

Reconstructed clibanus oven. 

 

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Digital Reconstruction of Shetland Settlement Jarlshof in Scotland

In 1897, a series of severe storms washed away parts of the Scottish coastline on Shetland, exposing the over 4,000 year-old remains of a settlement: Jarlshof.

Recently, a team led by Kieran Baxter created a digital reconstruction of the site’s various occupation periods–from its earliest dwelling in 2700 BCE through the Bronze Age and Iron Age. You can see the Viking settlement beginning in 1000 CE as well as a Medieval farm (1300 CE) as well as a laird’s house (ca. 1600 CE). This project is an excellent example of the way that archaeologists can use digital reconstruction to understand and demonstrate how multi-period sites change over time.

Screen Shot 2014-03-13 at 5.31.45 PM

© Kieran Baxter (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Read more about the project in Baxter’s article in Internet Archaeology online journal Issue 36.

 

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Want to be an archaeologist? Volunteer or attend a field school this summer!

 

Do you want to be an archaeologist? You can be this summer! There are tons of opportunities to volunteer or even get class credit for participating in a field school on an archaeological project. Check out these neat opportunities and apply today!

 

Azoria Project 2014 (Field School in Classical Archaeology)

If you’re looking to go to Greece this summer and want to experience all that the famous Cretan hospitality has to offer, I recommend applying for the Azoria Project 2014. Volunteers and Field School students not only learn how to excavate, but there are many learning opportunities in other aspects of archaeological investigation through working at the Institute for Aegean Prehistory Study Center for East Crete. Students and staff live in the village of Kavousi, where the residents are friendly and love to open their homes and show people around. There are also many opportunities for traveling the island and other sites in Greece during the afternoons and weekends. A big hit with the students is Tholos beach–where many students spend their afternoon relaxing and cooling off after a hard day’s work up in the mountains. If this sounds like the adventure for you, check it out more on the project’s website (Duke in Crete) and information page (Azoria Project 2014).

Field School participants sifting soil for bones, pottery, and plant remains (duke.globaled.edu)

Field School participants sifting soil for bones, pottery, and plant remains (duke.globaled.edu)

 

Petra, Jordan Archaeological Field School (Summer 2014)IMG_0561

Were you a fan of Indiana Jones growing up? Then you may recognize to the right the Monastery of Petra featured in The Last Crusade. Join NCSU professor S. Thomas Parker and ECU professor Megan Perry in investigating the every-day lives of the people who lived at this magnificent site during the first to fourth centuries CE. Petra is nearly 2,000 years old, and was the capital of the Nabatean kingdom before the area was conquered by Rome and incorporated into the Roman empire. This site is famous for its magnificent rock-cut building facades, temples, and Byzantine churches (in the Indiana Jones film, it was also the final resting place of the Holy Grail–which sadly researchers have not actually found at the site). Come experience the breath-taking beauty of this ancient city and experience the rich cultural heritage of the friendly people of Jordan. Check out the program website (studyabroad.ncsu.edu) and apply before March 14!

 

Indiana Jones at the Monastery in Petra, Jordan

 

Balkan Heritage Field School 

The Balkan Heritage Field School (BHFS, est. 2003) offers every year between 8 and 15 field school projects/courses in the field of Archeology and History of South-Eastern Europe, Documentation, Conservation and Restoration of Historic Artifacts and Monuments, taught in English, in two Balkan countries: Bulgaria and Macedonia. Various excursions around the Balkans, including the most attractive historical sites and cities of Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece, Serbia and Turkey supplement the BHFS program.

The Balkan Heritage Field School Projects are affiliated with ongoing research and/or conservation projects (such as excavations, expeditions, workshops), contributing to the study and preservation of the Balkan cultural heritage. They involve as trainers and instructors professionalarchaeologists and conservators, historians as well as other heritage specialists from Bulgaria, Macedonia, USA, Canada, France and Japan. Each BHFS project combines 3 basic educational modules: theoretical (lectures, presentations and field trainings), practical (participation in excavations, lab work, conservation workshops, field trips) and excursions to attractive archaeological and cultural sites & behind-the-scene visits. BHFS projects are listed among academic courses of New Bulgarian University, Bulgaria and all participants can obtain academic credits upon request.

 

Other opportunities

There are many other opportunities to participate in archaeological projects throughout the world! Students as well as interested amateurs and newcomers alike are welcome to experience archaeological investigation and contribute to the field! Check out the list of field schools as well as funding opportunities on both the Archaeological Institute of America’s Field Work Bulletin page and the American Schools for Oriental Research website.

Categories: Archaeology News | 1 Comment